This is the fifth installment on a series of various sandboxing techniques that I’ve used in my own code to restrict an applications capabilities. You can find a shorter overview of these techniques here. This article will be discussing sandboxing with Apparmor.
Mandatory Access Control:
Mandatory Access Control (MAC), like Discretionary Access Control (DAC), is meant to define permissions for a program. Users and Groups are DAC. But what if you want to confine a program with full root? As discussed, root with full capabilities is quite dangerous – and in the case of SyslogParser quite a few of those capabilities are necessary.
Apparmor is a form of Mandatory Access Control implemented through the Linux Security Module hooks in the Linux kernel. MAC is “administrator” defined policy, and can confine even root applications.
Apparmor is a *bit* out of scope for this series, as it doesn’t actually involve any code, but it’s still relevant.
While Apparmor itself doesn’t have code in SyslogParse, here’s the profile for the program.
# Last Modified: Wed Aug 13 18:57:15 2014
Apparmor is incredibly straight forward. There is a path, and then there is one or more letters. These letters stand for certain things.
r = read
m = map
w = write
All of this is pretty straight forward. SyslogParse gets the number of CPU cores from /sys/devices/system/cpu/online , so it needs “r” access.
It needs to read some libraries in order to function.
And that’s it. Sort of… apparmor on my system is, unfortunately, quite broken. The tools for enforcing/ complaining crash on me (I have a lot of weird profiles that I experiment with), which is actually why I started building SyslogParse. So this profile is a bit incomplete. It still needs some capabilities defined for chroot, setuid/setgid, and possibly more file access.
When enabled an Apparmor profile will begin enforcing policy as soon as the process begins. That means that, even if running as root, an attacker is always confined to those files defined in the profile. Apparmor is quite powerful, and combined with the other sandboxing techniques used it’s a very nice reinforcement – writing to the chroot, for example, is denied throughout the process by both DAC and MAC now.
Apparmor is, unfortunately, only available on certain distributions.
Next Up: Final Conclusion